A Study on the Correlation among Human Resource Flexibility Strategy, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, and Organizational Performance in Ecotourism Industry

Ling-Chuan Huang, Ming Gao, Ping-Fu Hsu

Ekoloji, 2019, Issue 107, Pages: 379-383, Article No: e107048


Download Full Text (PDF)


To satisfy the demands for production peak, reduce personnel costs for labor, limit the increase of employees in enterprises, and focus on corporate specialty to develop the competitive advantage, enterprises would generally apply human resource flexibility strategy to achieve the objectives. The practice of human resource flexibility strategy would change work-related characteristics; besides, the effect of the system on employees would decide the effort, absenteeism, or turnover. Aiming at supervisors and employees in ecotourism, as the research objects, total 500 copies of questionnaire are distributed, and 351 valid copies are retrieved, with the retrieval rate 70%. The research results reveal positive and significant effects of 1.human resource flexibility strategy on organizational citizenship behavior, 2.organizational citizenship behavior on organizational performance, and 3.human resource flexibility strategy on organizational performance. According to the results, suggestions are eventually proposed, expecting to provide essential assistance for the human resource flexibility strategy in ecotourism and assist in the sustainable development.


ecotourism, human resource flexibility strategy, organizational citizenship behavior, organizational performance


  • Alameddine M, Bauer JM, Richter M, Sousa-Poza A (2016) Trends in job satisfaction among German nurses from 1990 to 2012. Journal of Health Services Research & Policy, 21(2): 101-108.
  • Alghamdi MG (2016) Nursing workload: A concept analysis. Journal of Nursing Management, 24(4): 449-57.
  • Chua RYJ, Roth Y, Lemoine JF (2015) The impact of culture on creativity: How Cultural tightness and cultural distance affect global innovation crowdsourcing work. Administrative Sciences Quarterly, 60: 189-227.
  • Coetzee M, Stoltz E (2015) Employees’ satisfaction with retention factors: Exploring the role of career adaptability, Journal of Vocational Behavior, 89: 83-91.
  • Do B, Yeh PW (2016) Role of human resource flexibility in organizational innovation. TUNGHAI Management Review, in Press.
  • Do B, Yeh PW, Madsen J (2016) Exploring the relationship among human resource flexibility, organizational innovation and adaptability culture. Chinese Management Studies, 10(4): 657-674.
  • Han K, Trinkoff AM, Gurses AP (2015) Work-related factors, job satisfaction and intent to leave the current job among United States nurses. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 24(21-22): 3224-3232.
  • Hayes AF (2015) An index and test of linear moderated mediation. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 50: 1-22.
  • Jadoo SAA, Aljunid SM, Dastan I, Tawfeeq RS, Mustafa MA, Ganasegeran K, AlDubai SAR (2015) Job satisfaction and turnover intention among Iraqi doctors - a descriptive cross-sectional multicentre study. Ali Jadoo et al. Human Resources for Health, 13(21).
  • Lúanaigh PÓ, Hughes F (2016) The nurse executive role in quality and high performing health services. Journal Nursing Management, 24(1): 132-136.
  • Munir RIS, Rahman RA (2016) Determining dimensions of job satisfaction using factor analysis. Procedia Economics and Finance, 37: 488-496.
  • Ross A (2015) Innovating Professional Services: Transforming Value and Efficiency. Farnham, UK: Gower Publishing Ltd.
  • Tsai KH, Liao YC, Hsu TT (2015) Does the use of knowledge integration mechanisms enhance product innovativeness? Industrial Marketing Management, 46: 214-223.
  • van der Walt F, Thasi ME, Jonck P (2016) Skills shortages and job satisfaction – insights from the Gold-Mining sector of South Africa. African Journal of Business and Economic Research, 11(1): 143-183
  • Way SA, Tracey JB, Fay CH, Wright PM, Snell SA, Chang S, Gong Y (2015) Validation of a multidimensional HR flexibility measure. Journal of Management, 41(4): 1098-1131.
  • Xu M, Li SX (2015) Analysis of good practice of public health emergency operations centers. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 8(8): 677-682.