Cytospora Cankers on Tree Plants in Urban Areas (Karaganda, Astana, Pavlodar) of Central and Northern Kazakhstan

Ainagul Ospanova, Lyailya Anuarova, Aidar Spanbayev, Zhanar Tulegenova, Talgat Yechshzhanov, Shermakhan Shapalov, Bakytzhamal Gabdulkhayeva, Bibigul Zhumabekova, Saltanat Kabieva, Bibenur Baidalinova

Ekoloji, 2018, Issue 106, Pages: 63-69, Article No: e106011


Download Full Text (PDF)


Cytospora canker is a serious fungal disease attacking many types of fruit and ornamental trees in urban parks and gardens. This factor is important when it comes to identifying the disease, as well as to studying its distribution and determining the best methods for its control. The purpose of this article is to define the species composition, host plants, seasonal dynamics of Cytospora cankers on tree plants in major cities of Central and Northern Kazakhstan (Karaganda, Astana and Pavlodar). 5 Cytospora species were recorded on leaves and bark of the examined trees during the research: Cytospora leucosperma (Pers.) Fr. on Betula pendula L., Cytospora microspora (Corda) Rabenh. on Crataegus sanguinea Pall., Cytospora salicis on Salix fragilis L., Cytospora salicis (Cda.) Rad. on Populus nigra L. and Cytospora pseudoplatani Sacc. on Acer negundo L. Cytospora species development turned to be dependent on the amount of precipitations and was slightly affected by temperature. Cytospora salicis (Сda.) Rad on Populus nigra L. and Cytospora leucosperma (Pers.) Fr on Betula pendula L. were new species for Kazakhstan. Cytospora salicis (Cda.) Rad, that parasitizes on the Populus nigra L. appeared the most hazardous specie.


Cytospora cankers, host plants, fungal disease, stroma, endophytic pathogens


  • Adams GC, Roux J, Wingfield MJ (2006) Cytospora species (Ascomycota, Diaporthales, Valsaceae): introduced and native pathogen of tree in South Africa. Australian Plant Pathology, 35: 521-548.
  • Adams GC, Wingfield MJ, Common R, Roux J (2005) Phylogenetic relationships and morphology of Cytospora species and related teleomorphs (Ascomycota, Diaporthales, Valsaceae) from Eucalyptus. Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
  • Ainsworth GC, Sampson K (1950) The British Smut Fungi (Ustilaginales). The Commonwealth Mycological Institute; Kew.
  • Biggs AR (1989) Integrated control of Leucostoma canker of peach in Ontario. Plant Disease, 73: 869–874.
  • Bills GF (1996) Isolation and analysis of endophytic fungal communities from woody plants. In ‘Endophytic fungi in grasses and woody plants: systematics, ecology, and evolution’. (Eds SC Redlin, LM Carris). APS Press: St Paul, MN., pp 31–65.
  • Bisby GR (1933) The Distribution of fungi as compared with that of phanerogams. J. of Botany., 20(4).
  • Burova LP (1986) Ekologia gribov i micromitsetov. Moscow: Nauka, pp 220.
  • Chang LS, Iezzoni A, Adams GC, Ewers F (1991) Hydraulic conductivity in susceptible versus tolerant peach seedlings infected with Leucostoma persoonii. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 116: 831–834.
  • Cheremisinov NA (1973) Obshaya patologiya rastenii. M.: Vysshaya shkola, pp 350.
  • Christensen CM (1940) Studies on the biology of Valsa sordida and Cytospora chrysosperma. Phytopathology, 30: 459–475.
  • Dudka IA, Vasser SP, Elanskaya IA, et al. (1982) Metody eksperimentalnoi mikologii: Handbook. Kiev: Naukova Dumka, pp 550.
  • Farr DF, Bills GF, Chamuris GP, Rossman AY (1989) Fungi on plants and plant products in the United States. APS Press: St Paul, MN.
  • Fisher PJ, Petrini O, Sutton BC (1993) A comparative study of fungal endophytes from leaves, xylem and bark of Eucalyptus nitens in Australia and England. Sydowia, 45: 338–345.
  • Flora sporovykh rastenii Kazakhstana (1961) Alma-Ata: Nauka, pp 3.
  • Flora sporovykh rastenii Kazakhstana (1981). Alma-Ata: Science, pp 12.
  • Gvritishvili MN (1969) Rod Cytospora v SSSR: abstract of the thesis for the degree of a Doctor of Sciences. Tbilisi.
  • Hyde KD, Hongsanan S, Jeewon R, Bhat DJ, et al. (2016) Fungal diversity notes 367–490: taxonomic and phylogenetic contributions to fungal taxa. Fungal Diversity, 80: 1–270.
  • Isin MM, Tuleuov ZT (1970) Treatment of Cytospora canker. Sadovodstvo, 12: 14.
  • Kepley JB, Jacobi WR (2000) Pathogenicity of Cytospora fungi on six hardwood species. Journal of Arboriculture, 26(6): 326-333.
  • Mehrabi M, Mohammadi Goltapeh E, Fotouhifar KB (2011) Studies on Cytospora canker disease of apple trees in Semirom region of Iran. Journal of Agricultural Technology, 7(4): 967-982.
  • Ospanova AK (2006) Analyses of Taxonomy and Distribution of Fungi Species in Woody-Bush Plantations of the Pavlodar Region, Kazakhstan. Mongolian Journal of Biological Sciences, 4(2): 79-83.
  • Parmasto E (1968) Conspectus systematic corticiacearum. Tartu, pp 261.
  • Rakhimova E, Byzova Z, Valiyeva B, Dernovskaya L (2005) Diversity of microfungi in fruit forests of ili-alatau national park (Kazakhstan). Phytopathol. Pol., 35: 203–213.
  • Redlin SC, Carris LM (1996) Endophytic Fungi in Grasses and Woody Plants. APS Press, Minnesota.
  • Reich R, van der Kamp BJ (1993) Frost, canker and dieback of Douglas fir in the central interior of British Columbia. Canadian Journal Forest Research, 23: 373-379.
  • Saccardo PA (1882-1931) Sylloge Fungorum, pp 25.
  • Schoeneweiss, D.F. (1983). Drought predisposition to Cytospora canker in blue spruce. Plant Disease, 67, 383–385.
  • Sinadsky YuV (1964) Vrediteli i bolezni pustynnykh lesov Srednei Azii i Kazakhstana. М.: Lesnaya promyshlennost’.
  • Sinclair WA, Lyon HH, Johnson WT (1987) Diseases of trees and shrubs. Cornell University Press: Ithaca, NY.
  • Transhel VG (1939) Obzor rzhavchinnykh gribov SSSR. M. L.
  • Vanin SI (1934) Metody issledovanii gribnykh boleznei lesa povrezhdenii drevesiny. L.: Goslestekhizdat, pp 24.
  • Worrall JJ, Adams GC, Tharp SC (2010) Summer heat and an epidemic of cytospora canker of Alnus. Can. J. Plant Pathol., 32(3): 376–386.
  • Zhuravlyov II (1979) Opredelitel gribnuykh boleznei dereviev i kustarnikov. Moscow: Lesnaya promyshlennost.