Effects of Floods, Droughts, and Water System Changes on the Rise and Fall of China’s Ancient Capitals within the Yellow River Basin

Wei Wang, Lachun Wang, Yongtai Li

Ekoloji, 2017, Issue 99, Pages: 9-21, Article No: e099002


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In China, cities are normally built along rivers. The capital of China has changed several times since the establishment of the Xia dynasty, the first dynasty of China. However, most of the capital cities were located along the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River. The Yellow River system, composed of the Yellow River and its tributaries, has exerted huge effects on the rise and fall of the ancient capitals. Xi’an, Luoyang and Kaifeng are known as the most important, the most famous and the longest-serving capitals of ancient China along the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River. Focusing on the three historical capitals, this study investigated how changes in the Yellow River system, floods and droughts, and the development of water transport had affected the courses of development of China’s ancient capitals.


The Yellow River system, ancient capitals, floods and droughts, water transport, capital relocation


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