Environmental Benefits of Breastfeeding in the Natural Course of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and Hormonal Changes on it

Hamidreza Mohammadi, Farzad Vafaei, Parnian Mousavifard, Parviz Yazdanpanah

Ekoloji, 2019, Issue 107, Pages: 525-531, Article No: e107024


Download Full Text (PDF)


Breastfeeding offers society not only improved health of children and mothers but also economic and environmental benefits. Breastfeeding does not waste scarce resources or create pollution. Breast milk is a naturally-renewable resource that requires no packaging, shipping, or disposal. The present study investigates how breastfeeding influences environment and mother health throughout the early parenting years. This research also compares natural course of the carpal tunnel syndrome during the first 6 months after delivery in women feeding their children using formula and breastfeeding mothers. This study was conducted in 50 pregnant women with symptoms and signs of CTS (carpal tunnel syndrome). After delivery and confirming the CTS, women were classified in two groups: breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding. Follow- up of clinical and electro diagnostic of women were done in first 6 months after delivery. Research findings indicated a positive and significant relationship between breastfeeding and environmental protection. Other findings showed that complete recovery in breastfeeding, non-breastfeeding and all women was 10.7%, 52.9% and 26.7% respectively. Partial recovery in breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding women was 71.4% and 47% respectively. Complete recovery in mild stage in breastfeeding, non-breastfeeding and all women was 22.2%, 57.1% and 33.3% respectively. Complete recovery in moderate and severe stages in all women was 23.3%. Rate of complete recovery to partial recovery in non-breastfeeding women was 1.7 times more than breastfeeding women. Findings of the study showed that relief of symptoms and reduction of severity of CTS and impact of hormonal and environmental changes on it, is higher in women who feed their children on formula than those who breastfeed their children. Pregnancy related CTS would not usually resolve after delivery and must be followed-up by clinical symptoms and electro diagnostic studies. Hormonal changes during lactation, repetitive motions, excessively flexed wrist positions, and maternal ecology effects during breastfeeding may be causing aggravated pregnancy related CTS after delivery.


breastfeeding, environmental benefits, health effects, carpal tunnel syndrome, hormonal changes


  • Akbuga-Ozel, B., Aksel, G., Kilicli, E., Muratoglu, M., Kavalci, C. K., Gulalp, B., Kayipmaz, A. E (2017) Metoclopramide-induced acute dystonic reaction misinterpreted as conversion disorder and seizure. European Journal of General Medicine, 14(4), 122-124. doi: 10.29333/ejgm/81746
  • Anita C, James KR, Rita A (2016) Rehabilitation of patients with neuropathies. In: Braddom, Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders.
  • Becker J, Nora DB, Gomes I (2002) An evaluation of gender, obesity, age, and diabetes mellitus as risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome. Clin Neurophysiol, 11(9): 1429-34.
  • Cesar FDLP, Joshua C, Peter H (2011) Neck and arm pain syndromes, Evidence-informed screening, diagnosis and management. Elsevier, Churchill Livingstone.
  • Chang MH, Chiang HT, Lee SSJ, Ger LP, Lo YK (1998) Oral drug of choice in carpal tunnel syndrome. Neurology, 51: 390-93.
  • De Krom MC, Knipschild PG, Kester AD (1992) Carpal tunnel syndrome: Prevalence in the general population. J Clin Epidemiol, 45: 373-76.
  • Dimitrios K (2004) Treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome: a review of the non-surgical approaches with emphasis in neural mobilization. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 8: 2-8.
  • Felsenthal G (1979) Carpal tunnel syndrome diagnosis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 60: 90.
  • Finsen V, Zeitlmann H (2006) Carpal tunnel syndrome during pregnancy. Scand J Plast Reconstr Hand Surg, 40(1): 41–5.
  • Johnson EW (1997) Practical EMG. 3rd ed. USA: Williams & Wilkins.
  • Jun K (2001) Electrodiagnosis in disorders of nerve and muscle, Principal and Practice (3rd ed,), Oxford University Press.
  • Kara A, Özyürek P (2017) The effect of periuretral care and follow-up on bacteriuria in patients with urinary catheter: A comparison of three solutions. J Clin Exp Invest. 2017;8(2):54-60. doi: 10.5799/jcei.333382
  • Lawrence R, Lawrence R (2016) Breastfeeding: A Guide for the Medical Profession (8th ed.), Philadelphia: Mosby, 601.
  • Nathan PA, Keniston RC, Myers LD, Meadows KD (1992) Longitudinal study of median nerve sensory conduction in industry: Relationship to age, gender, hand dominance, occupational hand use, and clinical diagnosis. J Hand Surg, 17: 850-57.
  • Nolan WB, Alkaitis D, Glickel SZ, Snow S (1992) Results of treatment of severe carpal tunnel syndrome. Hand Surg, 17: 1020-23.
  • Somaiah A, Roy AJ (2008) Spence Carpal tunnel syndrome. Ulster Med J, 77(1): 6–17.
  • Stevens JG (1977) AAEE Minimonograph#26: The electro diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome. Muscle & Nerve, 20: 1477-86.
  • Turgut V, Cetinşahinahin M, Turgut M, Bölükbaşi O (2001) The management of carpal tunnel syndrome in pregnancy. J Clin Neurosci, 8: 332-4.
  • Wand JS (1990) Carpal tunnel syndrome in pregnancy and lactation. J Hand Surg Br, 15(1): 93-5.
  • Yazdanpanah P, Aramesh S, Mousavizadeh A, Ghaffari P, Khosravi Z, Khademi A (2012) Prevalence and Severity of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Women. Iranian J Publ Health, 41(2): 105-110.