Study on Introduction Carbon Management into Environmental Management of Tourist Destinations

Xinliang Ye, Ruihong Sun, Jun Gao

Ekoloji, 2018, Issue 104, Pages: 21-32, Article No: e104003


Download Full Text (PDF)


Tourist destinations in China face pressure from the target that carbon emissions Per unit GDP dropping ​​40-45% from 2005 to 2020, as tourist activities almost happen in destinations and the carbon dioxide emissions generated by the tourism industry are mainly in destination. Carbon management is a new framework being built based on the ecosystem carbon cycle and environmental management and offers a new way to improve present management in destinations. How to introduce carbon management planning into tourist destination management to achieve low-cost carbon emission reduction targets has become a hot topic for research. While emissions are produced in travel to the destination, this study only examines in destination travel and looked destination as an integrated system to discuss future development by reconciling climate change, environmental management and tourism growth. Firstly, this article reviews past research about carbon management in China and abroad, followed by an analysis the key issues and the basis of carbon management at a tourist destination. Carbon management seeks to manage the carbon cycle system process, and the key problem to be solved is how to keep the carbon cycle in smooth operation, so that the tourism industry and the environment achieve coordinated sustainable development. Analysis of the operation, dynamic mechanism, and restraint mechanisms of carbon management in tourist destination, leads to the conclusion that the basic operating mechanism for carbon management involves carbon sinks. The forces driving change in this area are clean development and carbon trading. Stakeholder collaboration and responsibilities for carbon reduction are the main constraints.


carbon management, environmental management, tourist destinations, tourist activity, carbon emission


  • Arakawa H, Aresta M, Armor JN, Barteau MA, Beckman EJ, Bell AT, et al. (2001) Catalysis research of relevance to carbon management: progress, challenges, and opportunities. Chemical Reviews, 101: 953−956.
  • Becken S (2004) How tourists and tourism experts perceive climate change and carbon-offsetting schemes. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 12: 332−345.
  • Birdsey R, Pregitzer K, Lucier A (2006) Forest carbon management in the United States. Journal of Environmental Quality, 35: 1461−1469.
  • Blair G, Lefroy RDB, Singh BP, Till AR (1997) Development and use of a carbon management index to monitor changes in soil C pool size and turnover rate. Driven by nature: plant litter quality and decomposition (pp. 273−281). Wallingford: CAB International.
  • Buhalis D (2000) Marketing the competitive destination of the future. Tourism Management, 21: 97−116.
  • Canan P, Crawford S (2006) What can be learned from champions of ozone layer protection for urban and regional carbon management in Japan? Global Carbon Project: 16217.
  • Chen J (2010) Low carbon management. Beijing: Navy Press.
  • Cheng Y, Green-Weiskel L, Camp R, Li X, Fang F, An F (2010) Using the energy and climate registry for carbon management in China. Carbon Management, 1: 57−63.
  • Conrady R, Buck M (2010) Trends and issues in global tourism. Springer.
  • De Young R (2011) Slow wins: patience, perseverance and behavior change. Carbon Management, 2: 607−611.
  • Deurer M, Grinev D, Young I, Clothier BE, Müller K (2009) The impact of soil carbon management on soil macropore structure: A comparison of two apple orchard systems in New Zealand. European Journal of Soil Science, 60: 945−955.
  • Di Giacomo N, Guthrie J, Farneti F (2012) Travel carbon emission reduction: managing and accounting in a global company. Macquarie University Research Online.
  • Dilling L, Doney SC, Edmonds J, Gurney KR, Harriss R, Schimel D, et al. (2003) The role of carbon cycle observations and knowledge in carbon management. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 28: 521−558.
  • Draper EL, Becker RA (2000) Research and development needs for the sequestration of carbon dioxide as part of a carbon management strategy. Washington, DC: National Coal Council.
  • Edmonds JA, Freund PF, Dooley JJ, Williams D, Durie B (2002, August) The role of carbon management technologies in addressing atmospheric stabilization of greenhouse gases. Paper presented at GHCT-5, Richland, WA, USA.
  • Gössling S (2011) Carbon management in tourism: Mitigating the impacts on climate change. Abingdon, Oxon, England; New York: Routledge.
  • Grace J (2004) Understanding and managing the global carbon cycle. Journal of Ecology, 92(2): 189-202.
  • Han LN, Wu JF, Ren RP, Wang YQ (2013) Structure dynamics of the source countries of inbound tourists in China in 1995−2010. Areal Research and Development, 32: 81−85.
  • Huang H (2010) Learning from carbon management in developed countries. Global Science Technology and Economy Outlook, 25: 19−23.
  • Huston MA, Marland G (2003) Carbon management and biodiversity. Journal of Environmental Management, 67: 77−86.
  • IPCC (2007) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis.
  • Law BE, Harmon ME (2011) Forest sector carbon management, measurement and verification, and discussion of policy related to climate change. Carbon Management, 2: 73−84.
  • Leiper N (1989) Main destination ratios: Analyses of tourist flows. Annals of Tourism Research, 16: 530−541.
  • Leiper N (1990) Tourist attraction systems. Annals of Tourism Research, 17: 367−384.
  • Li G (2012) Review on enterprise carbon management and future prospects. Pioneering With Science Technology Monthly, (3): 40−41.
  • Li XQ, Yin Y (2012) Conceptual model of low-carbon tourism area and construction of its evaluation index system. Tourism Tribune, 27: 84−89.
  • Lippke B, Oneil E, Harrison R, Skog K, Gustavsson L, Sathre R (2011) Life cycle impacts of forest management and wood utilization on carbon mitigation: Knowns and unknowns. Carbon Management, 2: 303−333.
  • Liu YH, Ge QS, He FN, Cheng BB (2008) Strategies to cope with the international pressure of CO2 emissions reduction and analysis on the emission reduction potential of China. Acta Geographica Sinica, 63: 675−682.
  • Okereke C (2007) An exploration of motivations, drivers and barriers to carbon management: The UK FTSE 100. European Management Journal, 25: 475−486.
  • Pan Y, Birdsey R, Fang J, Houghton R, Kauppi P, et al. (2011) A large and persistent carbon sink in the world’s forests. Science, 333(6045): 988-993.
  • Pandey DN (2002) Global climate change and carbon management in multifunctional forests. Current Science, 83: 593−602.
  • Ren GY, Guo J, Xu MZ, Chu ZY, Zhang L, Zou XK, et al. (2005) Climate changes of China’s mainland over the past half century. Acta Meteorologica Sinica, 63: 942−956.
  • Rush D, Melville N (2012, December) Do carbon management system adoption announcements affect market value? Paper presented at ICIS 2012, Orlando, FL, USA.
  • Scott D, Becken S (2010) Adapting to climate change and climate policy: progress, problems and potentials. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18: 283−295.
  • Shi PH, Wu P (2011) Preliminary estimates of energy consumption and CO2 emissions in China’s tourism industry. Acta Geographica Sinica, 66: 235−243.
  • Shi PH, Wu P, Feng L, Zheng B (2010) A study on design of the emission reduction policy framework in Chinese tourism and strategic measures. Tourism Tribune, 25: 13−18.
  • Tan J, Cheng Q (2010) Construction of evaluation system for low-carbon tourism attractions − A case study of four Gongga Yanzigou Scenic Area in Sichuan. Economic Research Guide, (11): 117−118.
  • United Nations Environment Program -- Tongji University of Environment for Sustainable Development Research Team (2012) Chongming ecological island carbon source carbon sequestration research report.
  • Wall G (1998) Implications of global climate change for tourism and recreation in wetland areas. Climatic Change, 40: 371−389.
  • Wang KJ (2007) Inspiration from environmental technology management in foreign countries to China. Environmental Protection, 8: 32−36.
  • World Travel and Tourism Council (1992) Travel and Tourism: The World’s Largest Industry. Brussels, Belgium, 1992: 630–635.
  • Wright AP, Hudson D (2012, February) An analysis of the feasibility of carbon management policies as a mechanism to influence water conservation using optimization methods. Paper presented at the 2012 Annual Meeting, Birmingham, AL, USA.
  • Yuan DX (2001) Carbon cycle of the Earth system and the environmental effects of resources. Quaternary Sciences, 21: 223−232.
  • Zhao J, Wu MM, Qian GR, Lin FC (2011) Economic-driven Enterprise Environmental Performance Based on Stakeholders and Empirical Evidence. Chinese Environmental Science, 31 (11): 1931-1936.
  • Zhao RQ, Huang XJ, Xu H, Gao S (2009) Progress in studies on urban carbon cycle and carbon management. Journal of Natural Resources, 24: 1847−1859.
  • Zhu FD (2011) Corporate carbon management in low-carbon economy. Enterprise Economy, (7): 51−54.
  • Zou YG (2011) Estimation of carbon footprint in tourist attractions and its environmental impact. Journal of Chongqing Normal University (Natural Science Edition), 28: 74−78.